|Índice do Artigo|
|Influencia do ciclo menstrual na formação do mau hálito-halitose|
|Material and Methods|
Influence of gender and menstrual cycle on volatile sulfur compounds production
Arch Oral Biol. 2008 Dec;53(12):1107-12
Calil CM1,2, Lima PO1, Bernardes CF3, Groppo FC, Bado F, Marcondes FK1*
1Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba - SP, Brazil.
2Dental School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo – SP, Brazil
3Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Campinas– SP, Brazil.
Running Title: halitosis and gender
* Corresponding author:
Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas
Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba
Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Av. Limeira, 901 - Vila Areião
13414-903 Piracicaba -SP, Brasil
Phone/Fax: + 55 19 2106 5380/ 2106 5212
Keywords: volatile sulfur compounds, menstrual cycle, salivary cortisol and salivary flow.
The menstrual cycle has been pointed out as a factor influencing halitosis. However this relationship has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gender and the menstrual cycle on the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in women (n=14) across the menstrual cycle, and in men (n=17). Volunteers in good oral and general health were submitted to the evaluation of VSC, salivary flow, cortisol and anaerobic bacteria counts in saliva. Data were compared among groups by Analysis of Variance (alpha=5%). VSC was higher in the menstrual and premenstrual phases when compared with men and the follicular phase (p<0.05). Salivary Flow was lower in the menstrual and premenstrual phases when compared with men and the follicular phase (p<0.05). Salivary cortisol was higher in the menstrual phase in comparison with men and the premenstrual and follicular phases (p0.05). In conclusion, the production of VSC is influenced by menstrual cycle and protein concentration and salivary flow might be involved in this process.
Halitosis is defined as an unpleasant odor emanating from the oral cavity and has a significant impact on the patient’s daily social life. Due to the increasing number of people suffering from halitosis, this condition has been considered as a public health problem1,2.
The oral malodor is caused mainly by the volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) produced by the action of anaerobic gram-negative oral microorganisms on sulfur containing substrates found in the mouth, such as food debris, saliva, blood, and epithelial cells3. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide [(CH3)2S] are the primary oral VSC2.
The most frequent sources of halitosis in the oral cavity include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal pockets4. Thus, oral halitosis may be associated with gingivitis and periodontitis2. However, some patients complain about halitosis without any clinical evidence, such as periodontal disease, gingival bleeding, tongue coating or systemic disorders and its treatment represents a challenge to the dental clinician. Moreover, there is also evidence on the influence of menstrual cycle and premenstrual syndrome on the production of VSC1,5.
The homeostasis of the oral cavity involves complex multifactorial relationships, in which the endocrine system plays an important role6. Researchers have shown that changes in periodontal conditions may be associated with variations in sex hormones7. In addition, some reports have indicated that sex hormones induce proliferation of specific periodontal microorganisms and affect the host immunological response8,9. On the other hand, Koreeda et al.10 reported that periodontal manifestations can occur only when there is an imbalance in the oral cavity and sex hormones. In this context it seems that VSC concentrations might also be influenced by these alterations in the oral cavity during the menstrual cycle but this hypothesis is still not clear.
Since the relation between VSC concentration and menstrual cycle is still not clarified, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of menstrual cycle on the production of VSC in healthy volunteers and which factors could be involved in this process.